In the first decades of the nineteenth century, social and economic problems invaded the field of urban design, which consequently became a social science. The new town planners wanted to correct the imbalances generated by the transformations produced by the Industrial Revolution.
Unlike other revolution that have taken place throughout history, the Industrial revolution had significant effects on the environment. First, it gave rise to a series of factors that changed the balance between town and country. The first of these was death rate, which for the first time dropped below the birth rate. This growth in the number of inhabitants was accompanied by an increase in average life expectancy and an increase in the number of young people. Consequently, the traditional harmony that had to existed between generations was broken, and each group had to face new problems.
Another important factors was the increase in goods and services produced by agriculture, industry, technological progress and economic development. The synchronism of the increase in population and that of production is obvious. The inhabitants require more services which in turn makes possible a further increase in population. In the same way, the greater availability of goods and services improves the standard of living of the different social classes, and explains the demand for other more abundant and various goods.
Source : Racomplex.com